Wednesday, October 30, 2013

ovvoru pookalume - Autograph HD

ovvoru pookalume - Autograph HD

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Tamil love sollathaan ninaikireen song by thenral

Saturday, October 26, 2013


Ammonia level in the blood of Meenu, K age 19 YRS

Ammonia Levels in Humans

Ammonia Levels in Humans
An imbalance in the ammonia levels in humans can be a sign of many health issues. This article will give you all the necessary information about the normal range of ammonia levels in the human body. Have a look!

Ammonia plays an important role in the biological system of the human body. It is the main source of nitrogen supply which helps in the synthesis of amino acids. Amino acids are considered to be the building blocks of protein in the body. The proteins are broken down by the intestinal bacteria and form ammonia, which in turn is converted into urea by the liver and finally excreted by the body in the form of urine through kidneys.

Liver dysfunction may cause elevated ammonia levels in humans which can be an indication of many health issues. The condition may also be caused due to kidney dysfunction due to which filtering of blood in kidneys is affected leading to elevated levels of ammonia in blood. The levels of ammonia in the human body can be detected through a blood test. Your doctor would advice you for the same if he/she finds symptoms of low or high levels of ammonia in your body. These symptoms usually include confusion, hand tremors, symptoms of liver disease, excessive sleepiness, and so on. The test procedure and results are explained as we proceed further with this article.

Test Procedure to Determine Ammonia Levels in Humans

It is preferable to conduct this test in the morning as the blood sample needs to be collected on an empty stomach. Your doctor would advise you to fast at least 8 hours before the test is conducted. Getting the blood test done early in the morning would allow the fasting period to be covered during your sleep. You should also refrain yourself from consumption of alcohol and nicotine as these elements may alter the test results. Also make sure that you don't perform any strenuous exercise before the blood test. You should inform your doctor about the medications that you are consuming as some medicines can influence the ammonia levels in the body. Accordingly, the doctor may advice you to stop taking those medicines for a few days until the blood sample is collected. Below mentioned are the steps to perform the blood test to determine ammonia levels in human body.

The health professional may collect the blood sample from the vein on the back of your hand or at the inner elbow.

A medicated cotton ball is used to clean the site from where the blood will be withdrawn in order to prevent infection.

A plastic band is wrapped around the upper arm so that the flow of the blood is increased towards the veins, which makes it easier for the medical professional to withdraw blood.

The health care provider then inserts a medicated needle attached with a vial, into the vein and withdraws the desired amount of blood required for the test.

Then the plastic band is removed from the upper arm and once the pressure is off, the needle is withdrawn.

A medicated cotton ball is placed on the punctured site and the site is pressed for sometime to prevent further bleeding and infection.

The blood sample is then sent to the laboratory to reveal the results with the help of the blood. Ammonia levels in humans help determine the causes behind the disturbing symptoms due to which the test is taken.

Ammonia Levels in the Human Body

Ammonia Levels in HumansOnce the sample has been sent to the laboratory, the test results of the ammonia levels in humans are revealed within 12 hours. The normal ammonia levels in blood usually ranges from 15-60 mcg/dL or 21-50 mcmol/L. However, the test results vary from laboratory to laboratory. Therefore, it is best to consult with your doctor regarding the same. Below mentioned are the normal ammonia levels in humans categorized by their age.

Normal ammonia range for newborns: 170-340 mcg/dL or 100-200 mcmol/L

Normal ammonia range for children: 70-135 mcg/dL or 41-80 mcmol/L

Normal ammonia range for adults: 15-60 mcg/dL or 21-50 mcmol/L

Low ammonia levels in humans can be a result of high blood pressure or consumption of certain medications. If the test results are higher than the normal ammonia range, then this may indicate some underlying health conditions and issues which has resulted in high ammonia levels in humans. These conditions may include

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Kidney Failure


Heart Failure

Liver Diseases

Intestinal bleeding

Reye Syndrome

Internal bleeding in the stomach

I hope this article on ammonia levels in humans helped you gain some understanding of why the levels of ammonia should be within the normal range. Get in touch with your health care specialist for further doubts, as the results may vary from laboratory to laboratory. Have a safe tomorrow!


c jagadish chandran said...
Meenu, K 19 Yrs Blood Result at KIMS on 24th October, 2013 shows higher level of Ammonia in the Blood. Result Ammonia (HEPARIN OR EDTA PLASMA) (ENZYMATIC METHOD WITH GLDH)

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Thursday, October 10, 2013

Frequently Asked Questions:

1 ) How do I register for a Hydrocephalus Association (HA) WALK?

Go to HA’s web page ( Click on WALKs, click on “Schedule of WALK events,” click on your local WALK. When the WALK site web page opens click on “Register Here” and follow the prompts.

2 ) Is there a registration fee?

There is no registration fee. However, HA encourages all walkers to raise money from family, friends and colleagues. Walkers raising $50 or more will receive the WALK T-Shirt. (That’s asking 5 people you know for $10 each!) The money raised with the WALK will be used to fund HA’s program services, support, education and research. (The average walker raises $100 – and we know our walkers are well above average!)

3 ) May I register the day of the event?

Yes, you may register the day of the event, however we prefer that participants register before the WALK to enable our volunteers to anticipate and prepare for the correct number of walkers. (See answer to Question 4 below – “Why should I register?”)

4 ) Why should I register to participate?

There are several reasons why we ask walkers to register electronically prior to the day of the event. They are:
  • When a walker registers their own personal WALK web page is automatically generated. You also receive a hyperlink to your WALK web page that you can send to family and friends asking them to sponsor your participation in the WALK. They can do that easily online, on your web page, using a credit card.
  • Approximately 7-10 days before the event, HA sends all registered walkers important information about the WALK (what time to arrive, directions to the event, where to park, where to go when you arrive, what to bring to the WALK, what NOT to bring to the WALK, etc.) We can’t send the information if a walker isn’t registered.
  • The volunteer Logistics Committee works very hard to ensure that everything is in place for a fun and safe day for all. This includes securing donations of food, beverages, supplies, etc. The Logistics Committee needs an approximation of how many people will be participating to ensure that they have enough food, T-Shirts, beverages, etc. for everyone. When walkers don’t register – or don’t register until the last week – the Logistics Committee then has to scramble trying to “fill in” – often resulting in HA having to purchase something that could have been donated with more time. Please don’t think “I’m only one walker – one more won’t make a difference.” Unfortunately, hundreds of people think that! Please help the Logistics Committee by registering all of the walkers on your team as early as possible!

5 ) I registered last year do I have to register again this year?

You do have to register again; however, the information on the registration form will auto fill for you. At click on WALKs, choose Schedule of WALK events. Find and choose your local site. When the local WALK web page appears, click “Register Here.” Choose “I agree” after reviewing the waiver. When the registration form appears you will see an option at the top of the form: “If you have participated in any Friends Asking Friends event in the past, click here to auto fill this form.” Click the hyperlink and you will be promoted to enter your previous Username and Password. (Please use your previous login name and password to avoid duplicates in the system.) If you do not remember your Username and/or Password click the hyperlink and it will be emailed to you.

6 ) I will be walking with small children do I need to register them as well?

Yes, all walkers, young or old, should register to WALK for insurance purposes, to provide approximate attendance numbers and for proper record keeping. Please register each member of your team separately.

7 ) I am having a hard time registering online, what should I do?

Please contact HA staff at the following number (888) 598-3789 Ext. 12

8 ) May I run the route?

Any participant wishing to casually run the route is welcome to do so. Unless specifically advertised as such HA WALKs are not official, sanctioned or timed running events.

9 ) Are bicycles, roller blades or scooters allowed?

Bicycles and scooters (Razors, etc.) are NOT permitted at HA WALKs.
Roller blades are permitted at the discretion of the local Chairperson. Roller bladers must wear all appropriate protective gear. Roller bladers under the age of 16 must be accompanied by a parent or guardian at all times!

10 ) Can I bring my dog to the WALK?

Dogs are permitted at some WALK sites but not all. Please contact the local WALK Chair – contact information under Event Information of local WALK web page – to obtain the rules/regulations regarding dogs for your site. (Where dogs are permitted, all dogs must be leashed at all times and the owner must clean up after the dog.)

11 ) What will I receive for raising money (incentive prizes)?

Walkers raising $50 or more receive this year’s WALK T-shirt. Walkers raising $200 or more are eligible for HA WALK incentive prizes which range from a long sleeved T-shirt to a portable DVD player. (Some incentive prizes are available for children this year, too.) For information on this year’s incentive prizes and the amount walkers are required to raise to qualify please click HERE.

12 ) When will I receive my incentive prize?

Walkers have four weeks post-event to finish collecting money to be counted toward incentive prizes. Please allow 3-4 weeks after the deadline (8-10 weeks post-event) for your incentive prizecertificate to arrive. Your certificate will be sent to you via email or US Postal Service. Instructions for redeeming your certificate will be included. After you have redeemed your prize certificate your incentive prize will be shipped directly to you.

13 ) What if I cannot make it to the WALK?

If for some reason you cannot attend the WALK on the day of the event please send any money you have collected to the Hydrocephalus Association, 4340 East West Highway, Suite 905, Bethesda, MD  20814. (Please convert all cash to a check or money order – please do not mail cash!) Please enclose a note with the walker’s name, the walker’s telephone number, the team name (if applicable) and which WALK this money should be attributed to. To be eligible for incentive prizes all money collected must be received by HA by four weeks post-event. You will receive any incentive prizes for which you have qualified.
If you know from the beginning you will not be able to attend the event (work commitments, travel plans, etc.) we suggest you register for your local WALK as a “Virtual Walker.” To do so:
  • Go to
  • Click on WALKs; click on Schedule of WALK events
  • Choose your local WALK site; when the site’s web page appears click on “Register Here”
  • After reviewing the Waiver, click “I agree”
  • Choose “Join as an individual”
  • Follow the prompts and fill in all information requested
  • When you get to the “Fees” portion of the online registration form there are two options “Participant” or “Virtual Walker” – choose “Virtual Walker”
  •  (see question #9 below for additional information on serving as a Virtual Walker)

14 ) What if it rains on the day of the event?

We walk rain or shine, so plan accordingly and bring rain gear and umbrellas. There are a million reasons to walk……the rain will not stop us!

15 ) How long is the WALK route?

The length of the route varies for each WALK site. (Most routes are 5-kilometers or less – which equals 3.1 miles or approximately a one-hour walk for an average adult.) Walkers are not required to complete the full route. Walkers are encouraged to walk only as far as feel comfortable. HA WALK sites are accessible for wheelchairs, strollers, wagons, etc. Please contact your local WALK Chair for additional information.

16 ) What if there is no HA WALK in my area?

We invite you to register for HA’s “Virtual WALK” (see below for more information on Virtual WALK and/or participating as a “Virtual Walker.”)
  • Go to
  • Click on WALK
  • Choose “Schedule of WALK events”
  • A list of all HA WALKs will appear; go to the bottom of the list
  • Choose “Virtual WALK”
  • See complete instructions for participating as a virtual walker below.

17 ) What is HA’s Virtual WALK or a “Virtual Walker” — how does it work?

A virtual walker is just like any other HA walker. Virtual Walkers register to participate, raise money (electronically and/or face-to-face) and qualify for incentive prizes, including the WALK T-shirt. However, instead of walking at a HA WALK site the virtual walker walks in his/her own neighborhood on a day and time of their choosing at a distance that best suits the walker. (See complete Virtual Walker Instructions below.)

18 ) What is the best way to raise funds?

Contact the HA office ( to receive fundraising tips!

19 ) Can I continue to raise funds after the WALK is over?

Yes, you may continue to collect donations after the WALK is over (electronically or with cash/checks.) Please send any post-WALK donations directly to the HA office in San Francisco. (Hydrocephalus Association, 4340 East West Highway, Suite 905, Bethesda, MD  20814) Please convert any cash to a check or money order – please do NOT mail cash! To ensure your contributions are credited to the correct walker (many people have common names!) please enclose a note with the walker’s name, the walker’s phone number (in the event we have any questions), the team name (if applicable) and which WALK site the walker participated in. These donations will be added to your personal fundraising total as well as the local WALK’s total. Donations that are not appropriately labeled will be added to HA’s general WALK total and will not be eligible for incentive prizes. All donations must be received by the HA national office within four weeks post-WALK to be eligible for incentive prizes.

20 ) Who should checks be made payable to?

Checks should be made payable to Hydrocephalus Association. If you are participating in a local WALK please bring all checks and/or cash to the WALK with you and turn them in at Walker Registration/Check-In. If you receive checks after the WALK, please mail all checks to the HA national office (address below.) To ensure that all checks are credited to the right walker, please enclose a note with the walker’s name, the walker’s phone number (in the event we have questions), the Team name (if applicable) and the name of the WALK site. Contributions not clearly labeled will be credited to HA’s overall WALK revenue and will not be eligible for incentive prizes. HA national office address:  4340 East West Highway, Suite 905, Bethesda, MD  20814

21 ) Where does the money go?

Money raised at HA WALKs funds hydrocephalus research as well as HA programs that provide support, education and awareness. HA program services include one-on-one support for newly diagnosed families, HA support groups in cities across the US and more.

22 ) Are donations tax deductible?

Yes, the Hydrocephalus Association is a 501(c) 3 tax-exempt organization. Our tax ID number is 94-3000301. A copy of HA’s IRS determination letter is available from the HA national office.

23 ) Will there be food provided at the WALK?

Each WALK provides some refreshments, however every WALK site is different. Water is always provided and, at a minimum, granola bars, fruit and other snack items are available. Some sites provide pizza, BBQ or a full picnic lunch. Please check with your local WALK chair if you are concerned about the food that will or will not be available. (If you have a medical condition that requires you eat at a specific time we encourage you to bring your own food to ensure your requirements are met.)

24 ) How do I get more involved in the WALK beyond becoming a participant and raising funds?

All HA WALKs are volunteer initiated and coordinated. WALK Chairs are continually seeking volunteers, whether serving on a committee to help organize the WALK or serving as an event-day volunteer. HA WALKs have volunteer opportunities to suit every skill set! Please contact your local WALK Chair through the contact information provided on each local WALK webpage under Event Information.
Any other questions or concerns that you might have please email or call (888) 598-3789 Ext. 12


If you know you will not be able to attend your local WALK but still would like to participate we recommend you register as a Virtual Walker. Or if there is no HA WALK in your community we suggest you participate as a Virtual Walker in HA’s VIRTUAL WALK.
Virtual walkers are very much like “regular” walkers. They register to participate and they raise money to help HA in its mission of eliminating the challenges of hydrocephalus! Virtual walkers raising $50 or more will receive the HA WALK T-shirt (shipped to them at a later date) and walkers raising $200 or more will receive the incentive prize for which they qualify.
To participate as a Virtual Walker for a local WALK site or for HA’s VIRTUAL WALK:


  • Go to
  • Click on WALKs
  • Choose Schedule of WALK events
  • Choose your local WALK site (or, if you wish to participate in the “Virtual WALK” go to the bottom of the list and choose “Virtual WALK”)
  • When the local (or Virtual WALK) web page appears, click “Register Here”
  • Choose “I agree” after reviewing the Waiver
  • Choose “Join as an individual” (Virtual walkers must choose “Join as an individual”)
  • Fill out the requested information (if you’ve participated in a HA WALK before click the hyperlink at the top of the registration form to auto fill the information)
  • When you scroll down to the section labeled “Fees” there are two options: “Participant” or “Virtual Walker” – choose “Virtual Walker”


  • After you registered your own personal WALK web page was automatically generated. You can send a hyperlink to your WALK web page to family and friends across the world, asking them to sponsor your participation in the WALK. Family, friends and colleagues can easily sponsor you by going to your WALK web page and using a credit card to make a donation. Other electronic fundraising tools provide email templates to send to family, friends and colleagues. Edit your personal WALK web page (adding personal photos, etc.) to tell your personal story about why you’re participating in the WALK. (It’s really easy to do!)
  • You may also raise money the “old fashioned” way – asking people when you see them for a donation! Wearing a button that says “Ask Me” can help you start the conversation (“Ask Me” buttons are available by calling HA national at 888-598-3789 – Ext. 12.) Or make your own button with a photo of your loved one living with the challenges of hydrocephalus.
  • Call HA national and ask us to send you a Family Teams Packet (888-598-3789 – Ext. 12) – which explains how to conduct a letter writing campaign to raise money. Family teams using letter writing campaigns average $1,100 each!For additional fundraising tips and “how-to”s contact Randi Corey ( A WALK!
  • After you have completed fundraising, choose a day, time and place to “walk” at whatever distance works best for you. (Hint: Most HA WALKs are 3.1 miles – approximately a one hour walk for an average adult.) All virtual walkers must complete the “walking” portion of their participation no later than November 2, 2012. Virtual walkers must complete all fundraising and all checks must be received by HA national by November 15, 2012.* (Any contributions received after that date will not be eligible for incentive prizes.)*Please convert any cash to a check or money order – please do not mail cash!


After you have completed “walking” please notify HA that you have done so by:
Send an email to Lisa Sun ( with the following information:
  • Your name
  • Your phone number
  • That you have completed the “walking” portion (and date completed)
  • That you have finished fundraising, including
  • Were all donations made electronically?
  • Were donations made via cash/check? If so, how much is being mailed to HA?
  • Were donations made electronically and via cash/check? If so, how much is being mailed to HA?
  • If you have raised more than $50 please list your T-Shirt size (Sizes are Unisex so they run larger)
After the national office has received your notification and HA has received any checks that were mailed, that amount will be credited to your WALK participation. If you raised $50 or more your WALK T-shirt will be shipped directly to you. (Please allow 3-4 weeks for your T-shirt to arrive.)
Walkers raising $200 or more will receive their incentive prize certificate via email or US Postal Service. Instructions for redeeming your prize certificate will be enclosed. After you have redeemed your prize it will be shipped to you directly. (Please allow 2-3 weeks for processing.)
That’s it! You’re done! Pat yourself on the back for a job well done – going “above and beyond” to participate in HA’s 2012 WALK. Please accept our thanks for your support of the Hydrocephalus Association.
If you have any questions or need further assistance please contact HA at



Hydrocephalus WALK – FAQ

Hydrocephalus WALK – FAQ

Use of Limited Sequence CT Scans in Pediatric Hydrocephalus.

Use of Limited Sequence CT Scans in Pediatric Hydrocephalus

Individuals with hydrocephalus frequently have multiple computerized tomography (CT) scans to evaluate shunt function. A CT scan, also called a CAT scan, is a diagnostic tool that combines a series of x-ray views and computer technology to create an image of the body. CT scans provide more detailed information than standard x-rays and can be a lifesaving tool in diagnosing hydrocephalus and in some cases, identifying shunt failure quickly. However, these scans do not come without risk. The dose of radiation delivered during a CT scan is 100 to 500 times higher than traditional radiography. CT/CAT scans and MRIs are often used in the diagnosis and follow-ups for patients with hydrocephalus. While MRIs are a way to avoid exposure to radiation, many patients do not have a choice either because there is no availability to a MRI machine or the patient cannot have an MRI for various medical reasons. Studies have showed that the use of CT scans has increased in the last two decades, especially for pediatrics.  The radiation exposure from CT scans has caused concerns among parents and patients because of potential risk factors.  In a study published in JAMA pediatrics in June 2013, researchers at the University of California, Davis evaluated the association of the use of CT scans in pediatrics and subsequent cancer risk finding a link between the two.  The paper also found that the use of CT scans vary widely in clinical practice and suggests that there is an opportunity to reduce the dose of radiation through standardized protocols. It is not uncommon for children with hydrocephalus to undergo numerous CT scans throughout their life, raising the concern about the effects of the radiation exposure for the future. Studies such as the JAMA pediatric paper continue to bring awareness to the need for better understanding and standardized protocols for the utilization of CT scans in children.
A new study published in the Journal of NeurosurgeryEdward Ahn MD and colleagues at Johns Hopkins wanted to determine if there could be a way to limit the amount of radiation children with hydrocephalus receive during CT scans. This study explored the use of limited-sequence head CT scans for children with hydrocephalus, which limits the radiation exposure by taking seven slices or snapshots instead of the standard 32 to 40 slices.  Traditionally, standard CT scans are considered to provide a better picture of the brain while limited sequence scans, which take fewer slices, are considered to provide less clarity and accuracy in determining shunt function and therefore limits the knowledge a clinician needs to make treatment decisions. The study entitled, Analysis of limited-sequence head computed tomography for children with shunted hydrocephalus: potential to reduce diagnostic radiation exposure aimed to determine if limited-sequence CT scans can accurately evaluate children with hydrocephalus with the goal of reducing radiation exposure.
For this study, researchers reviewed standard CT scans and limited-sequence CT scans of 50 children aged zero to 17.  The average number of total head CT scans for each patient was 13.4 for the four-year period. Approximately, 42% of the study participants had at least 6 CT scans in one year. A total of 23% of the patients had received 18 head CT scans over the four-year study period. Two pediatric neuroradiologists and one neurosurgeon reviewed the scans. According to Dr. Ahn, they “determine that limited sequence CT was sufficiently accurate at detecting shunt malfunctions and estimated that the limited sequence will reduce radiation doses by an average of 91.8% compared to standard head CTs.”   The researchers concluded that the limited-sequence scans were adequate and would not have compromised clinical outcomes. Based on these results, Dr. Ahn is looking to the next step of the research,  ”we are currently conducting a trial with the limited sequence head CT in the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Emergency Room. We hope to find similar results so that the limited sequence CT can be implemented in other emergency rooms that treat children with shunted hydrocephalus.” It is noted that the limited sequence protocol would not be applicable for initial screenings of suspected hydrocephalus, visualization of lesions or abnormalities outside the ventricular system, trauma or evaluation of intracranial mass or lesion.
Children with hydrocephalus represent a population that is susceptible to frequent imaging.  The standard treatment method, a shunt, has high failure and malfunction rates with approximately 40 to 50% of shunts failing in the first two years after placement. With the multiple imaging, this population has great concerns about the exposure to radiation and the potential future outcomes.  The ability to find solutions that will lower a child’s exposure rate while still providing the clinically relevant information is highly sought.  This study provides evidence that limited-sequence CT scans could have the potential to provide this needed balance.  The question becomes whether hospital and clinicians adopt limited-sequence CT scans in the evaluation of children with  hydrocephalus.


Use of Limited Sequence CT Scans in Pediatric Hydrocephalus

Use of Limited Sequence CT Scans in Pediatric Hydrocephalus